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How to maintain a basketball

How to Care for Your Basketball

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Cared for correctly, your basketball should survive years’ worth of drives down the floor and highlight reel-worthy shots. Learn how to extend your basketball’s durability and lifespan with these helpful tips.

Every basketball player knows you have to get a good grip on the ball. But having a good grip on how to take care of it might be just as important. A basketball that is properly cared for can last much longer than one that isn’t and can be key in the success of your game. With that in mind, use these five tips to avoid common fouls that could affect your basketball’s lifespan.


Leather may have a reputation for being tough, but a leather basketball should be handled with care. Basketballs made with leather are meant for indoor courts only. Surfaces like gravel and concrete can cause damage to your ball by tearing the material apart or flattening the raised surfaces which, over time, can destroy the grip of the ball. When transporting a leather ball outside, it may be tempting to dribble it, but this is one time you will find yourself in trouble if you don’t carry.

Basketballs made of rubber or synthetic materials are better suited for rough outdoor surfaces and will be at less risk for the same type of damage. Using the right type of ball for the court you’re playing on will go a long way in preserving the life of your ball.


It’s much easier to clean the glass if you clean your basketball first. Over time, dust and dirt can make their way into the crevices of your ball. Left untouched, the dust will make your ball slippery – which means passing, shooting and dribbling will be harder. To avoid this, frequently give your ball a quick once-over with a towel.

For a more in-depth cleaning of a leather basketball, you can use a rag dipped in a mixture of water and mild detergent or leather shampoo. But be sure to dry it immediately with an unsoiled towel. Leaving a leather ball wet could destroy its surface.

You can be a little more lenient with your cleaning of rubber and synthetic balls, but as with leather models, do not leave them in damp conditions for long.


If you expose your basketball to the elements for too long, eventually they will expose your basketball. Rain or shine, hot or cold, neither indoor or outdoor basketballs should be left outside in extreme conditions. Any type of wetness can ruin the quality of your ball and make it lose its grip. Severe temperatures can also warp the shape of your ball and affect performance. Even leaving your ball exposed to sunlight can cause it to change colors.


The backboard isn’t the only sweet spot basketball players should focus on. There’s also a sweet spot in terms of air pressure. A general rule of thumb for checking air pressure is to hold the ball above your head and drop it. If it bounces back to about chest height, you’re good to go.

Playing with an over-inflated basketball or pumping it too fast can increase the chances of your ball forming lumps. If you slam an over-inflated ball on the ground or bounce it against the wall, it can increase the chances of the tearing. Meanwhile, an under-inflated ball can be nearly unplayable.


Be mindful of your surroundings while both playing with and storing your basketball, since other objects can cause damage or alter the shape of your ball. If you’re playing outside, try to keep a barrier around the court to avoid anything the ball can potentially ricochet into. Sharp objects can puncture the ball and bodies of water can cause damage.

Store your basketball in a cool, dry place, like a basketball bag. Be sure that nothing is on top of it or pushing on it from any direction. This can change the shape of your ball. Even leaving your ball on a rack for too long may cause it to become ovular rather than round.

Whether you’re looking to casually play in your driveway or train for the big time, taking care of your ball could help you reach the top of your game. These tips can give you the assist in maintaining your basketball’s longevity for years of quality play.

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    Basketball Maintenance Tips – How to Care For a Basketball

    by Zaraki Kenpachi

    A good basketball is one that can last for years but first, you have to maintain well. Whether the ball is synthetic, made of leather or full grain it should be properly maintained. The ball gets dirty too so, it has to be cleaned regularly.

    Wondering how you can clean the basketball without damaging it? Here are the tips we have compiled together for you, on how to maintenance of a basketball.

    How to Measure Air Pressure in a Basketball

    The ball is likely to lose air if it has not been used for a long time. When it loses air, it does not bounce and this may affect the ball. The ball has to have enough air throughout. It should bounce back approximately two-thirds of the way from where it was dropped.

    If this does not happen, then your ball does not either, have enough pressure or it has excess pressure in it. The information about the pressure is indicated near the basketball’s hole. A basketball should have 8lbs per square inch. Make sure not to use the ball when it does not enough pressure.

    The following is a guide to the pressure of the basketball.

    Take Care of Your Basketball Needle

    The needle should be lubricated well enough before using it for inflation. Insert the needle in the valve after you are sure that the needle is lubricated well and has no damages. This is necessary because a needle that is damaged can cause damage to a basketball too.

    How to Inflate a Basketball

    • Make sure not to use high pressure when inflating the ball. The pressure should not be the same as the one applied on tires. For a basketball, the pressure should be less.
    • Do not inflate the ball when it is cold. This is because; the bladder is likely to burst.
    • Make sure you hold the valve firm enough as you insert the needle. If you insert the needle anywhere else, the ball will get damaged.
    • When inflating the ball, do it slowly. Otherwise, if you do it fast, the bladder might burst because of the unanticipated pressure.

    How to Pump a basketball

    You should use the manufacturer’s instruction always when pumping the basketball. You might do it your own way then, end up either, overdoing it or under doing it. That might cause damage to the ball.

    How to Deflate a Basketball

    • If you are deflating the ball, you only need to put the needle in the hole and allow the air out.
    • During deflation leave, 2-3 pounds to ensure the cover is safe from any damage.

    Keep the Ball and Storage Rack Clean Always

    The basketball should be clean always. However, there are dos and don’ts to apply when cleaning the ball. If you do it the wrong way you can ruin the basketball.

    How to Clean a Basketball

    • Wipe the ball using a wet cloth and a damp.
    • After wiping it, dry it out. This will help the ball not to get stains that could be hard to remove.
    • The basketball could be too dirty and just wiping it, could not be enough. Therefore, if it is too dirty, use a leather shampoo. This keeps the ball’s oils retained.
    • Leave the ball in a well-ventilated place, to let it dry.
    • Never let the ball soak in water. This is because the water might seep in through the holes and the cracks. The moment water gets in the ball; the bladder of the ball is likely to get damaged.
    Steps of Cleaning the Ball
    • Put enough warm water in a bucket. Mix the leather shampoo in the water. In case you do not have leather shampoo, use a mild dish detergent.
    • Dip a rag in the mixture then clean the basketball. Focus on the seams of the ball mostly. This is because; the seams collect the most dust and durst in the ball.
    • Rinse the ball then dry it up with a dry rag.

    Store the Ball in The Right Place

    If not using the ball, store it in a cool dry place away from the sunlight. Do not keep the ball in the car boot. This is because; the temperatures of the car boot can damage the ball. It is recommended to keep it in a ball bag that is well ventilated.

    Caring Your Ball With Storage Rack

    Get a good quality storage rack to store your basketball. It is an equipment that plays a part in the durability of your basketball. The storage racks should also be cleaned because they accumulate dust.

    Use More Than One Ball

    During the game, use more than one ball. This gives the ball time to recover. The ball needs some rest.

    Kids Basketball Caring

    A good basketball for kids should be more durable. The kids should use a basketball that can be played both indoors and outdoors because it could be hard for kids to take good care of the ball.

    Pump the Ball Before Use

    We discussed the ball’s pressure earlier on. Therefore, the ball should have enough pressure always. Make sure to follow all the steps and follow the manufacturer’s instructions to the letter.

    Indoor & Outdoor Caring

    Depending on the basketball’s material, know where to use the ball and where not to. Leather basketballs are only for indoors and on wooden floors. Rubber or synthetic balls are for rough, cemented and rocky grounds.

    At the end of the day, basketball may seem as a hard equipment, but it’s not. It only needs proper care. The above information will help you take care of your ball as required. Proper care, prolongs a basketball’s life. Therefore, if you love your basketball and need it to last for long, then you have to take good care of it.

    Rules of Basketball

    How the rules have changed in your favorite game

    How the rules have changed in your favorite game


    Basketball was invented by James Naismith in 1891. Then everything was different: playgrounds, baskets, balls…

    !!! Read about the evolution of balls in the article:

    Basketball was invented by James Naismith in 1891. Then everything was different: playgrounds, baskets, balls…

    !!! Read about the evolution of balls in the article:

    The history of basketballs

    The history of basketballs

    What balls are played now and how it happened

    The beginning

    The rules have also changed a lot during this time. Initially, there were only 13 of them in basketball:

    1. The ball can be thrown in any direction with one or two hands.
    2. The ball may be hit with one or both hands in any direction, but never with the fist.
    3. The player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw the ball from the point at which he caught it, except for a player running at high speed.
    4. The ball must be held with the hands. You can not use the forearms and body to hold the ball.
    5. In any case, hitting, grabbing, holding and pushing the opponent is not allowed. The first violation of this rule by any player shall be called a foul; the second foul disqualifies him until the next ball is scored, and if there was an obvious intention to injure the player, then a disqualification for the whole game. It is not allowed to replace a disqualified player.
    6. Punching the ball is a violation of points 2 and 4, the penalty is described in point 5.
    7. commit no foul).
    8. A point is scored if a ball thrown or bouncing off the floor hits the basket and stays there. Defending players are not allowed to touch the ball or basket while shooting. If the ball touches the edge and the opponents move the basket, then a point is scored.
    9. If the ball goes out of bounds, it must be dropped into the field by the first player to touch it. In the event of a dispute, the referee must throw the ball into the field. The thrower is allowed to hold the ball for five seconds. If he holds it longer, then the ball is given to the opponent. If either side tries to play for time, the referee must give them a foul.
    10. The referee must monitor the actions of the players and fouls, and notify the referee of three consecutive fouls. He shall have the power to disqualify players under rule 5.
    11. The referee must watch the ball and determine when the ball is in play (inbounds) and when it goes out of bounds (out of bounds), which side should be in possession of the ball, and any other action that the referee would normally take .
    12. The game consists of two halves of 15 minutes each with a break of 5 minutes between them.
    13. The side with the most goals during this time period is the winner.

    The most important rule change in the history of basketball is the introduction of dribbling. In the original version of the game, this was prohibited by paragraph 3 of the rules.

    One of the first changes in the game and the rules was the replacement of the basket with a ring with a net. It seemed to be very inconvenient to climb after the ball every time after a hit. Around the same time, free throws, dribbling appeared, and the composition of the teams was fixed for 5 players on the court at the same time. Before that, in some matches, up to 50 people could be on the court at the same time. All this happened back in 1896-1897.

    The emergence of FIBA ​​(International Basketball Federation)

    Basketball in the early 20th century became more popular and the rules in each country could be different. This was one of the reasons why FIBA ​​appeared in 1932 year. At the first FIBA ​​Congress, the teams were approved (5 people and 2 substitutes), and it was decided that after each goal there would be a throw-in in the center. This rule was removed after 4 years to reduce the advantage of tall players.

    Over the next few years, the main changes were related to the number of personal fouls, the number of players on the bench and the introduction of a time limit for getting the ball into the opponent's half of the court.

    More changes came in 1952 after the Olympic Games. The game became very boring, because the teams held the ball, having received a minimal lead in the score. Everyone understood this and searched for solutions for several years in order to save the life of basketball. At 1954 Danny Biason proposed to the NBA to limit the time for the shot to 24 seconds. At the 1956 Olympics, there was a similar rule: it was necessary to make a throw in 30 seconds. At the same time, to add equality between defense and attack, another rule familiar to us appeared: you need to start dribbling the ball before the supporting leg comes off.

    Then the game became similar to the modern one from a technical point of view: dribbling, shots, a three-second zone appeared. In 1979, the NBA added a three-point line, and in 19In 1984, FIBA ​​also added an arc.

    !!! An article about the evolution of the three-point shot and interesting facts:

    10 interesting facts about the three-point shot.

    10 interesting facts about the three-point shot.

    Three-pointer evolution and insane records.

    Changes in the rules and basketball since 1956 have included the number of free kicks, the situations in which these free kicks are given, and individual and team penalties. Some rules were introduced, and a few years later they were canceled. For example, the "3 for 2" rule: if a player was fouled in the shooting phase, then if one of the first two shots was missed, he could make another free throw. This rule was later removed.

    Since the 1990s there have been constant changes: the emergence of alley-oops, changes in the timing and rewriting of the rules of running, which continue to this day.

    From the most interesting: if the team has 0.3 seconds or less to throw the ball from behind, then it must be a one-touch throw. It takes at least 0.4 seconds to perform a full throw.

    Derrick Fisher made similar throws:

    And here is a small selection of videos of how they throw in 0.2 seconds:

    Do you want to take your first steps in basketball or improve your basic skills? We have a Basic Basketball Skills workout for you. See the schedule and sign up:


    Coach: Yuriy Bespalov

    - Professional player of the INANOMO 3x3 team;
    - Champion of Russia 3x3 2019, 2021;
    - Winner and medalist of the MOFB championship;
    - MLBL Summer League MVP 2017;
    - Multiple participant of Moscow Open;
    - Champion of Moscow 3x3 2017;
    - MVP GrunisCup 2017.




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    copies of Swiss watches

    The purpose of writing this work is to summarize the practical experience of developing the physical qualities of high-class basketball players. It is possible that this experience can be in demand by representatives of other sports, as well as become a guideline in the training of young talents striving for the heights of mastery.

    You won't find anything new here. From the known, the appropriate one was chosen, lined up in the optimal order and tested in the training process. You should not blindly repeat someone else's experience, but the knowledge gained will probably help you create your own unique pedagogical technology.

    “…No man will show you more than what lies half asleep at the dawn of your knowledge. And the teacher, walking in the shadow of the temple, surrounded by students, gives them not his wisdom, but only faith and the ability to love. If he is truly wise, he will not invite you into the house of his wisdom, but will only bring you to the threshold of your own mind. The astronomer can tell you about his understanding of space, but he cannot give you his understanding. A musician may sing to you about the rhythm that surrounds us, but he cannot give you the ear to catch the rhythm, or the voice to repeat it. And he who is versed in the science of numbers can tell you about the world of weights and measures, but he cannot lead you there. Because the insight of one person does not spread its wings on another. And each of you stands alone before God, so each of you must be alone in your knowledge of God and understanding of the Earth ”(Khalil Gibran (“Prophet”, “On the Teaching”)).

    The physical qualities that the science and practice of sports speak of include flexibility, strength, speed, endurance and agility. We will talk about their importance for a successful basketball game and their effective development.

    Sports physiologists and practicing trainers identify a number of the most essential and stable requirements that determine the nature and features of a reasonable planning and conduct of the educational and training process, including the development of physical qualities or, in other words, the improvement of physical conditions.

    Progress of results can only be ensured by overload. It should be understood as a training effect that exceeds the usual level, in response to which the body receives an incentive to increase the trained function. It must be remembered that the conditional “corridor”, along the lower border of which the threshold of stimulating action passes, and exceeding the upper one is harmful to health, is very, very narrow. For example, this applies to the effort when stretching muscles, the weight of weights in strength training, the length of the cross-country distance, etc.

    A coach's knowledge is a prerequisite for an athlete's injury prevention, because a pupil is completely defenseless against the instructions of a mentor, especially at the beginning of his career.

    Any physical quality is both acquired and “fades out” in the absence of training effects or inadequacy of the load. These time periods are known to science and confirmed in practice. It is impossible to get a result quickly, but it can be saved only with the help of regular work.

    Under load, only those systems of the body are trained, on which we act strongly enough for the effect to appear. To play basketball, you need very specific qualities in a very specific amount. When choosing the nature and magnitude of the training load, remember the appropriate scale of priorities for a basketball player. Basketball has a wide variety of requirements. Much needs to be taught and developed, and the time for this is catastrophically short. Doing too much, we just lose it.

    Knowing a lot of exercises and methods should not be used in order to apply everything, but in order to choose the optimal minimum from the total mass. A great athlete or an "ordinary" person - each of us is a unique biosystem with a set of abilities unlike any other. Some people, according to their data, are more suitable for successful basketball lessons, some are less promising. In any case, the coach must always and in everything take into account the individuality of the ward.

    The main task of the mentor, the cornerstone of his work, is to help the pupil reach his "ceiling" in the development of qualities, skills and knowledge, while maintaining the health of the athlete as much as possible. Trying to encourage the player to “jump over your head”, and even more so someone else’s, is a gross mistake.

    Playing basketball and basketball exercises encourage the body to develop physical qualities (do we make an exception for strength?). This important circumstance should be taken into account when planning the work. First, it is necessary not to quantitatively exceed the limit of the permissible load on one or another organ and function. Secondly, the interaction of training effects of loads can be positive, negative or neutral. That is, for a good "soup" you need the right combination of ingredients.

    Athletic results in many sports, and basketball is a vivid example of this, depend on skills (technique, dexterity) and the level of development of physical qualities. The proportion is approximately 50:50. Every coach should take care of these components. But the approaches to them are fundamentally different.

    The skill is built mainly at the time of work, here it is quite appropriate to use the principle “you can’t spoil porridge with butter”, without going to extremes, of course. In physical training, a combination of load and rest is effective. Reasonable rest is the key to success in improving "physics".

    All of the above applies equally to flexibility, and to strength, and to speed, and to endurance. Dexterity is somewhat different, but that's a separate conversation. Perhaps also because basketball dexterity is the main and irreplaceable quality in the game.

    1. Injury safety

    Do not sacrifice the animal in yourself for the sake of the human (the wisdom of the Taoists)

    In any production, and the training process is the real production of the ability to play basketball, paramount attention should be paid to labor protection and safety rules.

    In order to change something, it is necessary to act, in our case, to influence a person. Man is a biosystem, always striving for balance. Any onslaught meets opposition: if the body has sufficient resources to fight back, the “attack” will be reflected. When the system is weak, the load brings certain destruction, eliminating which the body will also build up the affected part (function), make it stronger, more resilient, faster, etc.

    Overexposure or their cumulative effect will result in harm: injury, illness or death. Sometimes this happens when doing one particular exercise.

    Exercises cannot be divided into traumatic and non-traumatic, but, according to statistics, some of them are leading in terms of the number and severity of injuries. Why? Everything that is effective is not safe, and even very dangerous in inept hands. Failure to understand the essence of the exercise leads to the following consequences:

    — it is impossible to explain and teach the correct execution of the exercise, which increases the risk;

    - untimely application of the exercise;

    - the exercise is offered to both the “small”, and the “old”, and the “lame” ...

    All that has been said equally applies not only to means, but also to methods.

    Coach's competence is the key to the athlete's health. You cannot offer something that you do not know, do not feel and would not do yourself.

    The Parable of Sugar

    “Jalaliddin Rumi is one of the pillars of Sufism (a mystical trend in Islam). Many people came to him for advice and words of wisdom. Once a neighbor woman came to Rumi with a boy and said:
    — I have already tried all the ways, but the child does not obey me. He eats too much sugar. Please tell him this is not good. He will obey because he respects you very much.
    Rumi looked at the child, at the trust in his eyes, and said:
    — Come back in three weeks.
    The woman was completely bewildered. It's such a simple thing! It's not clear... People came from distant countries, and Rumi helped them solve big problems right away... But she obediently came in three weeks. Rumi looked at the child again and said:
    - Come back in three more weeks.
    Here the woman could not stand it and dared to ask what was the matter. But the sage only repeated what he had said.
    When they came for the third time, Rumi said to the boy:
    - Son, take my advice, don't eat too much sugar, it's bad for your health.
    - Since you advise me, I will not do it again, - the boy replied.
    After that, the mother asked the child to wait outside for her. When he left, she asked Rumi why he didn't say those words the first time they met, because it's so easy? Jalaliddin confessed to her that he himself liked to eat sugar, and before giving such advice, he had to get rid of this weakness himself. At first he thought that three weeks would be enough, but he was wrong...
    One of the signs of a true Master is this: he will never teach what he has not known himself. The master is honest, and first of all - with himself. His words correspond with their realization. The Master's words come from personal experience, the wisdom lives within him, not in the scriptures. Here it is difficult not to recall the Chan saying: “When a good person preaches a false doctrine, it becomes true. When a bad person preaches a true doctrine, it becomes false."

    Yes, with one exercise, the problem happens, but more often the total cumulative effect of inadequate quantity, intensity and combinations of individual types of load harms. So there is an injury out of the blue and "it is not known why."

    It is possible to avoid this to some extent. A stupid one will step on the same rake twice, and a smart one twice, but on different ones. For a positive result, it is not necessary to do anything, very often something should simply be avoided.

    There is no need to train for more than an hour and a half in a row, because science and practice have established that only forty minutes of a lesson can effectively load a student, and devote the rest of the time to warming up, hitting, repeating simple exercises. Try to avoid two workouts a day. Do not work more than six days in a row without a full day off. Do not exercise more than three times a week.

    Each team has individual players. The team cannot be injured or tired, but the sum of the weakened functional states of the players may be below the conditional critical mark.

    Cadres decide everything. Think about a person. An undertrained athlete is helping the team by 80-90% of his potential, and an injured athlete is “zero”, he simply does not exist.

    It is very important to monitor the condition of the players: subjectively - your opinion, conversations about sleep, appetite, desire to train; objectively - pulse, orthotest and other functional tests. Do not be afraid to reduce the load up to the release of patients from training. In planning collective loads, you need to focus on the weak. Better let the strong fail.

    Recovery and load are connected by one thread. The coach must provide the athlete with the opportunity to recover, but it is equally important that he wants, knows how and can use it.

    Sleep is a necessary time and a comfortable place (bed, bed). Nutrition - what, how much and when. Plus sports supplements, sauna, massage…

    It's important to understand and remember: there are no restorative loads. They will always delay recovery by slowing it down. Passive rest and empty pastime are sometimes very effective in the struggle for sports results.

    We end this chapter with where it all starts, namely, mental health care, which by definition is a state of well-being in which a person is able to realize their own potential, cope with stress, work productively and contribute to life of your community. Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that our body is a functionally inseparable extension of the brain, and vice versa.

    It is impossible to give advice in every situation, but the bottom line is that all the work of a coach should be, like a sponge, saturated with concern for injury safety and the health of their students.

    2. Warm-up

    No matter how easy it may seem, you need to prepare for it. Preparation in sports is usually called a warm-up. There is nothing more famous, everyone knows that before physical activity it should be. But the attitude of athletes and coaches to the warm-up is ambiguous. In words, everyone recognizes its necessity, but in reality, many imitate this work or ignore it altogether.

    What should be the warm-up if we still want to prepare for classes and competitions? Answer: adequate and safe. After all, most injuries are the result of mistakes during the warm-up period.

    In a simplified view, a sports "bio-machine" consists of executive organs, which include bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments, a control apparatus, by which we mean the central nervous system, and "home front workers" - internal organs. First, we prepare the actuator, heat it up and stretch it. At the same time, internal systems - the heart, lungs, and so on, are also activated.

    Usually, warming up is monotonous work of low and medium intensity for 4-8 minutes (jogging, cardio, jump rope, etc.). Some coaches use ball exercises or outdoor games to warm up. However, this comes with a certain risk.

    Warm up followed by stretching exercises (6-12 minutes). When the body is warmed up and stretched, it is logical to move on to a special part in which the "general staff" (CNS) remembers how to control the upcoming movements. It is necessary first in small, then in medium, and then at a high pace to do the elements and bundles of elements of those movements that will meet in the main part of the lesson. It is advisable to do it in no smaller amplitudes than during normal execution. As it is correct, it takes from four to six minutes (in the pre-game warm-up - 10-15 minutes).

    Thus, you need to plan for preparation from 15 to 30 (before the competition) minutes. For a more efficient use of time, it is possible at the time of stretching exercises to learn in practice the location and purpose of body parts and the muscles that set them in motion. In the special part, emphasis should be placed on the correct technique of techniques, especially when they occur at a slow and medium pace.

    We must not forget about the state of mind. It is recognized and proven that emotions seriously affect the pattern of movement. It is in the warm-up that the necessary mood is laid, the prerequisites for courage. From a well-conducted warm-up, game and training discipline follows.

    3. Flexibility

    Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the limits of movement of the body's links. Her role for the player is important, but auxiliary. Not a single athlete has stopped playing basketball because of poor flexibility. Everyone has it individually, it is largely an innate quality. However, it is necessary to have a sufficient level of development of flexibility. In basketball, it can be achieved through simple stretching exercises.

    They have a number of positive effects. It has been scientifically proven and confirmed in practice that stretching gives the muscles qualities that improve strength and coordination capabilities, protects against injuries, and contributes (especially after exercise) to the fastest recovery.

    Various means and methods of muscle stretching are known. All physical culture of the second half of the twentieth century was saturated with jerky-springy movements. At the turn of the century, the so-called static method took over. The muscle is stretched like a tight rubber until a slight discomfort is felt and held in the achieved position for 20-40 seconds. There is also a ballistic method or, for example, PNS (proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulation).

    Almost every sport has its own traditional approach to the choice of means and methods of stretching, which takes a certain amount of time and effort. Given the basketball specifics, it is reasonable to stretch from 6 to 12 minutes in the warm-up before training or a game and 4-6 minutes in the cool-down (after the entire load).

    For the best organization of this process, it is necessary to choose a set of exercises, determine the methodology for performing these exercises and constantly follow it. The following tips are also useful to consider:

    - It is best to teach stretching by example. Here, more than anywhere else, the position that the coach is the player's partner is appropriate. When you yourself perform the exercise and enjoy it, your enthusiasm is easily transferred to the students, and they quickly begin to adopt the same attitude towards this area of ​​\u200b\u200bphysical development.

    — Stretching is a purely individual process. Explain to the wards that there is no place for competition in it. There should not be any norms or load limits. Do not force athletes to overexert themselves. Soon they will learn to dose the load in accordance with their own capabilities. The best success is achieved in the most natural way, giving the most pleasure.

    — The main thing is for athletes to realize that each of them is a unique creature in its own way with a strictly individual potential of physical abilities. All that a person can do is show what he is capable of, and nothing more.

    4. Strength

    Before we decide to do something in the best way, we should ask ourselves: is it necessary?

    An exciting game - basketball - has existed for over 100 years. Millions of people around the world have played, are playing and will continue to play with the orange ball. The vast majority of them, especially before the 80s of the twentieth century, did not consider strength training necessary to improve the quality of the game. Such great masters as, for example, Larry Bird, never lifted weights. Some Soviet trainers categorically forbade strength training and even punished those who were seen with dumbbells in their hands.

    The game changes quickly. Remarkable masters Karim Abdul-Jabar, Whit Chamberlain, Larry Bird turned basketball into a real art. But since big guys like Karl Malone, Michael Jordan, Shaquille O'Neal came to the fore, there's no going back. Basketball has become a muscular sport. And now most of the players are actively swinging, realizing that in every match they will have to face an opponent who knows firsthand what hard strength training is.

    An interesting question: why did this happen? Probably, the answer should be sought in the financial side of the matter. Sports is an industry. Big sport is a big industry. Basketball has become one of the favorites of commercialization. Millions of fans come to the arena, turn on TVs and computers in the hope and desire to see a spectacle where huge and powerful “gladiators” will come together in a fight. Who will create an idol for himself from an athlete whose bones are only covered with leather, and then also buy a T-shirt with his name on it? Today, everything is working to ensure that the game and its participants appear in the most favorable light, and the result would be unpredictable. Even refereeing is loyal with regard to contacts, power struggle. Thus, athleticism has become one of the components of basketball, and every coach, every player should take the development of strength seriously.

    Speed, endurance, flexibility, dexterity are somehow trained through game situations, but strength is not. This is explained by the fact that the stimulus for its development are exercises that a person can repeat about 12 times. In game situations, this happens very rarely. Basketball, first of all, is a game of accuracy, timeliness and ingenuity. The path to strength lies only through strength training:

    — After exercise with weights, testosterone levels rise, which can accelerate protein synthesis and increase the athlete's aggressiveness.

    — The muscular corset, which is formed under the influence of strength training, is a protection against injuries.

    - Well-developed muscles are provided with tone, and it gives the whole movement the main "priming", which improves coordination, increases speed and, as a result, basketball agility.

    - Strength indicators are improved directly.

    Super strength does not provide a tangible advantage, but a certain level of it is required. A high-class player must have a lot of knowledge, skills and abilities. Acquiring everything you need and maintaining it at the proper level requires an enormous amount of time and effort. That is why the training should be guided by the principle of reasonable sufficiency. Otherwise, you will not achieve what you want, there will be no time for recovery and other important components of training.

    How to measure the right force? The following opinion deserves attention: an athlete who is able to perform a squat with a barbell on his shoulders or chest with a weight equal to one and a half mass of his own, six or more times, and squeeze a barbell lying on his chest, on which a weight equal to his own, six or more times, can be considered strong enough. An athlete who is able to perform a squat with a barbell on her shoulders or chest with a weight equal to her own, six or more times, and squeeze a barbell lying on her chest, on which a weight equal to 0.7 of her own, six or more times, can also be recognized. strong.

    Practice shows that the vast majority of players do not achieve these indicators during their career, but it is important to strive for them. And not jumps, but step by step, taking into account all objective and subjective factors.

    Strength training should begin with the first basketball session. At first, these should be very simple exercises to overcome the resistances of your own body. Gymnasts, acrobats and wrestlers have the richest experience in the development of young athletes. Don't reinvent the wheel - borrow what's already there.

    Bring a player to the gym and give him the "iron" should not be earlier than 14 years. But after that, for five or more years, you can work on obtaining the indicators mentioned above.

    Sports science and practice have long and persistently sought, developed and implemented the most optimal methods and means for the development of physical qualities, including strength. But leading physiologists admit that despite the fact that coaches and athletes find effective exercises and rules for their use to achieve the desired results, in some cases there are no reliable scientific explanations for why this happens.

    There are some sports where strength is one of the main winning factors. These are weightlifting, powerlifting, athletics in terms of throwing, pushing, sprinting, jumping, artistic gymnastics, all types of wrestling ... Among the representatives of these disciplines there are outstanding athletes who show the superpowers of a person thanks to genetic data, special training, nutrition and rehabilitation means. Most training methods are designed for people who are predisposed to developing strength.

    Basketball is played primarily with the head, and then with the hands and feet. Therefore, it often happens that an athlete gifted with game thinking is, in terms of physical abilities, an ordinary person, or even “below average”.

    The development of the strength of sprinters, wrestlers, weightlifters involves preparation for a specific date of the competition. A person climbs a "high mountain" and hopes to be at the top on the day of the competition. And then downstairs: rest, and all over again. ..

    Basketball is a completely different matter, here the playing season lasts from six to eight months. Obviously, direct copying of training programs from representatives of strength sports is unacceptable. Learn, choose, adapt, try and apply - that's where the benefits lie.

    When designing strength training programs, the principle of an individual approach must be observed. The team works in a single methodological manner, but always taking into account the needs and abilities of each player. From the same principle follows the prohibition to arrange power competitions, especially in overcoming a one-time maximum resistance. You should abandon such exercises that cannot be repeated in one approach less than four times. You should not “try” the maximum weights - except for injuries, this will lead to nothing. When choosing exercises, you need to know and take into account the structure of the body, past and current health problems, and personal preferences.

    It is very important to teach the athlete the correct technique, to help him "feel" and love the exercise. Proper technique is the key to progress, which is the key to motivation. Nothing encourages the continuation of work as much as positive dynamics, albeit not too significant.

    Conventionally, all athletic exercises are divided into "global", in which almost the entire body is involved, "regional", where muscle masses are involved (several muscles) and "local" - the main movement is performed by one muscle. In our practice, when choosing training means, it is better to focus on “global” and “regional” exercises.

    Why? First, we will save time, which is always catastrophically small. Secondly, it has been proven that heavy exercises have a deeper and more effective effect on the body. Some of the exercises are performed in simulators, some with free weights (barbell, dumbbells). Professional athletes prefer to use free weights, except when there is no equal replacement for the simulator, or the load is given for the purpose of rehabilitation and special conditions are needed (angles, amplitude, smoothness, etc. ). Free weights are effective with the right technique.

    Choirs of muscles involved in any complex movement can be divided into "stabilizers" and "generators". "Stabilizers" hold the pose, and "generators" produce the movement itself. When working with a barbell and dumbbells, the athlete needs not only to move, but also to maintain the required posture, the torso as a stable platform. Any movement, even if we are not aware of it, starts deep within us. Therefore, it is wise to use exercises with free weights, because they just stimulate the “deep” muscles to develop.

    Strength is an almost entirely physical quality. It depends on the volume and quality of muscle mass. Other circumstances play a secondary role.

    The main condition for successful strength training is a well-chosen combination of load and recovery. During work, the muscle is destroyed, and is built and acquires new qualities during the rest period, when biological restructuring occurs at the cellular level in response to the proposed load. Rest may require at least 48 hours, and in case of severe exposure up to 96 hours. Practice shows that alternating hard workouts with relatively light ones is very effective.

    The key is to understand that strength training is an essential part of a player's preparation. Classes should be regular. If your pupils do push-ups from the floor three times a week, pull up on the horizontal bar, squat (even without weights), train the press and back in at least four sets of 10 to 30 repetitions, depending on the possibilities, this is already quite enough for a great start in becoming an athlete.

    5. Quickness

    In basketball, there are no moves that need to be done fast. Accuracy, timeliness, advance in martial arts - that's what is important and necessary. To do this, each athlete must have a margin in speed.

    Quickness is a complex psychophysical quality that depends on many factors. It can be grouped along three main lines. Firstly, the speed of resourcefulness, when you need to find a way out of the situation in the shortest possible time. Secondly, the decision to take this exit, because we often give ourselves a choice of what to do when there are options. Thirdly, the so-called speed of movements. If speed has already shown itself in correct resourcefulness, if it has led to an instantaneous adoption of a motional decision, then it is also obliged to ensure its implementation without delay. When movements easily and smoothly pass one into another, when muscle impulses do not interfere with each other and are consistent with the play of external forces, when this is done at a high pace, then we say: "The work goes smoothly."

    A fast player generally needs to have the knowledge, experience, and flair to anticipate situations so that he can make quick decisions. This largely depends on thoughtful work in training and games, as well as the coach's help in analyzing what is happening. The player needs to be decisive in order not to hesitate with the choice and implementation of the plan. The role of the psycho-emotional state (confidence, courage, aggressiveness) is important here. And again, one cannot do without the interaction of a coach and an athlete, because the listed components are acquired and developed.

    Finally, the player must be taught the rational technique of performing tricks.

    As noted earlier, the development of speed can and should be worked on, it can be trained. It should be remembered that in the game it is not the speed of individual movements, which is called agility, but the speed of the result that is more important. A fast head is always better than fast legs, but it is desirable to have both.

    People are different from each other in terms of psychomotor data. Usually the best pass through the sieve of sports selection, but even among them there are those who stand out.

    There are enough situations in game trainings and directly in the game itself in which the athlete trains the speed of movements. It is only necessary to prepare the ward, to give his movements correctness, and the game will teach speed. There is no special need to train speed outside the basketball court, if only for the reasons that in the end, a minimum and not long-term gain will be obtained with a high risk of injury.

    You can give a simple advice, which, however, is extremely difficult to implement. In order to become truly fast, you need to accustom yourself to never, under any circumstances, give in to martial arts: in training, matches, life situations.

    6. Endurance

    An enduring player is able to remain effective in action regardless of the intensity and duration of the played segments throughout the entire participation in the match.

    Unlike some other sports, especially cyclic ones, where endurance can be expressed in specific physical quantities (time, speed, work, power, etc.), in basketball it is determined subjectively and only indirectly by statistical indicators with taking into account the role of the player and the installation for the match. The manifestation of this quality depends on the motor tasks offered by the opponent during the competition. Thus, in some games, the athlete turns out to be hardy, but not in others. The endurance of a basketball player is a relative quality.

    Sports science has explored and studied the steady state of the body over long periods of time after a change in input conditions. In basketball, the impact on an athlete changes frequently and quite significantly. Accelerations, decelerations, change of directions of movements, alternation of horizontal and vertical movements... It is appropriate to consider that most of the competitive period the body is in the modes of transition from one state to another.

    It is difficult to accurately describe the biochemical, psycho-emotional and other processes, as well as their relationship, occurring at the time of the game of a particular athlete. But, analyzing the competitive activity of basketball teams, one can see that a number of situations are typical, including the presentation of requirements for functional training. Particularly endurance.

    Man is a living "machine" with his own characteristics. Nature created it for certain modes of operation, laid down the ability to develop them: the power and capacity of energy sources, the strength of the structure of the whole organism and its individual elements, the speed of the control apparatus and executive organs . .. Coaching wisdom is to know what and to what extent can be changed and what not.

    Special endurance should be cultivated on the basketball floor, simulating the conditions of game situations in exercises that, in terms of duration and intensity, take into account competitive realities and the capabilities of the athlete's body. But if game endurance appears and develops only on the court, then you need to prepare for this moment in advance: training in the forest, at the stadium, in the gym, etc. Here you can clearly see the need for creativity, multiplied by knowledge.

    Here is what the outstanding Soviet neurophysiologist N.A. Bernshtein said: “The quality of endurance is even more complex or, as they say, complex. It is entirely based on the friendly cooperation of absolutely all organs and systems of the body. For its manifestation, a high degree of well-establishedness is necessary: ​​both metabolism in directly working organs, and transport - the circulatory system that supplies them with food and removes waste from them, and supply organs - the digestive and respiratory systems, and, finally, all organs of supreme control and regulation - the central nervous system. In essence, a hardy organism must satisfy three conditions: it must have rich reserves of energy in order to have something to expend. He must be able to give back at the right moment - to “lay out” them with a wide hand, not allowing a single unit of energy to accumulate. Finally, at the same time, he must be able to spend these resources with rigid, reasonable prudence so that they are enough to cover as much useful work as possible. To put it briefly, being hardy means having a lot, spending generously, paying sparingly. As you can see, this quality characterizes the entire complex economy of the organism as a whole.

    7. Movement

    When it comes to a player's fitness, the first thing to evaluate is their ability to move adequately.

    In basketball, you need to have a lot of skills in terms of movement: moving forward and backward, sideways, stops, turns, jumps and their various combinations. They will be effective if they meet the basic requirements that help solve the problems that arise in the game.

    First, it is stability - the ability to resist influences in both static and dynamic positions. Secondly, agility is the ability to change the position of the body or the direction and pace of movement at one's discretion and control. Thirdly, timeliness is the ability to be in the right place at the right time, which implies a margin in speed.

    There has always been a concept of "correct technique", including for movements, although ideas have changed along with the transformation and development of the game itself. It is not difficult to assume that the best basketball players demonstrate the most effective forms of movement. But each player has his own unique manner of performing individual elements. N.A. Bernshtein noted: “If we were not afraid of violence against the language, then it would be quite appropriate to say that any athlete should purposefully and systematically develop his own “run”, “jump” and “throw”. The task of the coach is to help in this matter.

    We will assume that the executive organs of our body, through a certain training, are strong, flexible, fast and enduring to perform movements. You can get new motor skills by practicing. But what is exercise and how to deal with it?

    The longer a person devotes himself to some occupation, the more likely his work goes. A living organism does not deteriorate from it, but, on the contrary, becomes stronger, more enduring, more skillful, more dexterous, especially in relation to the very type of activity that it was engaged in. This property of the body is called exercise capacity.

    As elsewhere, in education there are laws and rules that govern this process. To understand them, we must first turn to the history of the emergence of exercise.

    In nature, everything makes sense, she does not make mistakes and does not do too much. If something exists, such as the ability of some organisms to acquire new knowledge, then it is extremely necessary and works perfectly. There was a time when all living things were born, lived their lives and died, not having the slightest opportunity to acquire even a modicum of personal experience. But at a certain stage of development, individual organisms had this gift - a chance to acquire new knowledge and skills. At the forefront was natural selection.

    Those who went further in the great competition of life differed from others, first of all, in the structure and functionality of the central nervous system (CNS). It is with the help of this “commander-in-chief” that management is carried out (including movements), it is he who receives and processes information to form a new one.

    Everything that has ever been born by an irresistible force pushes for survival and procreation. There is a constant competition "who wins whom, he will eat him." Any new knowledge gives its owner an advantage over a hitherto equal opponent. To at least not give in, the opponent must find an effective antidote. In this competition, the process of development, the process of learning, takes place.

    Motor skill — mastered ability to solve one or another type of motor task. A motor task is an image of a movement that needs to be performed and in which information about the goal, means and methods is correlated.

    The coach can build an athlete's training in the necessary skills, offering a range of motional tasks that are feasible to perform at the moment. It is necessary to indicate what should be done, and how - let the brain figure it out. Directing in the required direction and gradually complicating the condition, you can achieve what you want.

    If we consider that a skill is not the form of movement itself, but the sensations that control the progress of its implementation, then it is important to teach the sensations when performed correctly. For effective assistance in the development of technical elements, it is necessary to understand the following:

    — New knowledge will not appear in a person without his desire and participation. A skill is not a conditioned reflex that can be developed against the will of the student. The skill is actively built by the CNS. Exercise is active construction.

    In all techniques, even at first glance simple, there are many lightning-fast and elusive details. Everyone knows that seeing at least a hundred times how something is done and doing it yourself is not the same thing. The big difference is to establish the type of movement from the outside and feel it from the inside.

    — It takes time to learn. The student should feel “full”, and with different options for complications. Reasonable insight can speed up this process. The following law applies to a number of skills: firstly, at some point the skill is comprehended immediately, as if it had found insight, and secondly, once “caught” a skill of this kind is never lost again.

    - Mastering any skill does not go smoothly and smoothly. Along with qualitative leaps and climbing steps, the process often includes more or less long stops (hiccups), and sometimes even seemingly temporary deterioration. But they will surely be followed by a leap for the better, if you do not give up and continue to work hard. Unless, it probably makes sense to take a short break in training or add variety to it. Perseverance in classes at those moments when a hitch is clearly felt and the movement does not stick can bring noticeable harm.

    - The coach does not need to call, and the athlete does not need to follow the details of the movement, which has already been adjusted and passed into the category of automatisms.

    - It is unpromising to show the student his mistake, which he has made or potentially will make, together with calls not to do so.

    - After a skill is well mastered, in order to consolidate it, it is necessary to vary the conditions in which it manifests itself (darkness, uneven surface, sounds, etc.).

    Summarizing this chapter, I would like to recall the main theses of the above:

    - All work on the physical qualities should eventually be realized in improving the movement of the player.

    — Basic requirements are imposed on the movements of a basketball player: stability (balance), maneuverability and timeliness (reserve in speed). This must be remembered and taken into account.

    — Movements are carried out by muscles, but controlled by the central nervous system, so we prepare the muscles, and it is the system of nerve cells that we exercise.

    8. Agility

    There are few contenders to compete with basketball for the title of the most agile sport. Dexterity is the main quality that gives a decisive advantage in the competition. According to the definition of N.A. Bernshtein, this is the ability to cope with the motor task that has arisen: correctly, quickly, rationally and resourcefully.

    Agility is specific. A great basketball player will certainly look awkward when he takes up exercises with a soccer or volleyball for the first time in his life. Of course, after a short period of training, an athlete will master a new art for him better than many average people in terms of motor abilities. And yet, I think, there is no direct transfer of skills, dexterity from one sport to another.

    Dexterity is individual. It largely depends on innate abilities. But each person can improve this quality in relation to one or another type of physical activity. There are two components to success. First, the largest possible accumulated arsenal of various motor skills. Secondly, the experience of solving motor tasks in the maximum amount under various conditions.

    For basketball, agility is an irreplaceable and uncompensated quality. The more it is, the better the player. Dexterity is the “queen”, and all other qualities are her “servants”, with the help of which she will present herself in the best possible light or fail, despite her excellent physical shape.

    Agility must be distinguished from good coordination. Coordination lies in the movements themselves, and dexterity is manifested in the external environment. A player trained in technical elements, correctly and beautifully performing the entire arsenal of basketball movements, may turn out to be dexterous in this episode, or may not solve the required task. "What's the use of a skillful game when you lose" - says the English proverb.

    Based on the foregoing, when selecting children for a team, the first and only thing to pay attention to is the inclinations for the development of dexterity, because the rest can be brought to the desired conditions. It is not easy to determine it, it requires a special talent and a trained eye of a breeder. It is not easy to measure it, because motor resourcefulness, as dexterity is also called, is intellectual.

    In this case, it is useful to apply this method. If a person "A" with average psychomotor data can, as a result of a long training, perform this or that automated operation quite successfully, quickly and skillfully, and a person "B" will be able, after looking, to perform the same operation no worse the first or second time, then undoubtedly, it is difficult to indicate a more suitable candidate for the right to be called a dexterous person in a motor sense than a person "B".

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